吸烟可以增加肌萎缩侧索硬化症的发病率
发布时间:2016-11-18 15:22
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我们对肌萎缩侧索硬化症病因方面知之甚少,吸烟已被列为“可能”引发肌萎缩性脊髓侧索硬化症的危险因子(ALS)之一。国外实验表明那些吸烟超过33年的人患ALS的风险与从不吸烟者相比增加2倍多。反过来说,戒烟后数年比继续吸烟与ALS的风险降低。这些结果强有力地支持了ALS的病因作用的吸烟假说。据推测,这可能发生脂质过氧化,通过甲醛暴露。

原文如下:

Smoking and risk for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: analysis of the EPIC cohort.

Gallo V, Bueno-De-Mesquita HB, Vermeulen R, Andersen PM, Kyrozis A, Linseisen J, Kaaks R, Allen NE, Roddam AW, Boshuizen HC, Peeters PH, Palli D, Mattiello A, Sieri S, Tumino R, Jiménez-Martín JM, Díaz MJ, Suarez LR, Trichopoulou A, Agudo A, Arriola L, Barricante-Gurrea A, Bingham S, Khaw KT, Manjer J, Lindkvist B, Overvad K, Bach FW, Tjønneland A, Olsen A, Bergmann MM, Boeing H, Clavel-Chapelon F, Lund E, Hallmans G, Middleton L, Vineis P, Riboli E.

Division of Epidemiology, Public Health and Primary Care, Imperial College London, United Kingdom. v.gallo@imperial.ac.uk

OBJECTIVE: Cigarette smoking has been reported as "probable" risk factor for Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), a poorly understood disease in terms of aetiology. The extensive longitudinal data of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) were used to evaluate age-specific mortality rates from ALS and the role of cigarette smoking on the risk of dying from ALS. METHODS: A total of 517,890 healthy subjects were included, resulting in 4,591,325 person-years. ALS cases were ascertained through death certificates. Cox hazard models were built to investigate the role of smoking on the risk of ALS, using packs/years and smoking duration to study dose-response. RESULTS: A total of 118 subjects died from ALS, resulting in a crude mortality rate of 2.69 per 100,000/year. Current smokers at recruitment had an almost two-fold increased risk of dying from ALS compared to never smokers (HR = 1.89, 95% C.I. 1.14-3.14), while former smokers at the time of enrollment had a 50% increased risk (HR = 1.48, 95% C.I. 0.94-2.32). The number of years spent smoking increased the risk of ALS (p for trend = 0.002). Those who smoked more than 33 years had more than a two-fold increased risk of ALS compared with never smokers (HR = 2.16, 95% C.I. 1.33-3.53). Conversely, the number of years since quitting smoking was associated with a decreased risk of ALS compared with continuing smoking. INTERPRETATION: These results strongly support the hypothesis of a role of cigarette smoking in aetiology of ALS. We hypothesize that this could occur through lipid peroxidation via formaldehyde exposure.

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